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BANG! The Beginning of the Universe

Forms of the Cosmological Argument

  1. The universe had a beginning
  2. Anything that had a beginning must have been caused by something else
  3. Therefore, the universe was caused by something else (a creator)
  1. Every part of the universe is dependent
  2. If every part is dependent, then the whole universe must also be dependent
  3. Therefore, the whole universe is dependent for existence right now on some Independent Being
  1. Every event that had a beginning had a sufficient cause
  2. The universe had a beginning
  3. Therefore, the universe had a sufficient Cause
  1. Every effect has a cause
  2. The universe is an effect
  3. Therefore, the universe has a Cause
  1. An infinite number of moments cannot be traversed
  2. If an infinite number of moments had to elapse before today, then today would never have come
  3. But today has come
  4. Therefore, an infinite number of moments have not elapsed before today (i.e., the universe had a beginning)
  5. But whatever has a beginning is caused by something else
  6. Hence, there must be a Cause (Creator) of the universe
  1. An actual infinite cannot exist
  2. An infinite temporal regress of events is an actual infinite
  3. Therefore an infinite temporal regress of events cannot exist
  1. The temporal series of events is a collection formed by successive addition
  2. A collection formed by successive addition cannot be an actual infinite
  3. Therefore the temporal series of events cannot be an actual infinite
  1. Some things undeniably exist (e.g., I cannot deny my own existence)
  2. My nonexistence is possible
  3. Whatever has the possibility not to exist is currently caused to exist by another
  4. There cannot be an infinite regress of current causes of existence
  5. Therefore, a first uncaused cause of my current existence exists
  6. This uncaused cause must be infinite, unchanging, all-powerful, all-knowing, and all-perfect
  7. This infinitely perfect Being is appropriately called “God”
  8. Therefore, God exists
  9. This God who exists is identical to the God described in the Christian Scriptures
  10. Therefore, the God described in the Bible exists